This report responds to country requests for urgent guidance on the preparation of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), a core component of the Paris climate change conference (COP21).  

The guidance document draws on ideas shared in the 2014-2015 Regional Technical Dialogues on INDCs, convened by UNDP and the UNFCCC Secretariat, and was developed through a participatory process, incorporating feedback from an extensive review by countries and other organizations. 

The tool was subsequently distributed to over 110 countries and has been used around the world to prepare countries’ INDCs in the lead-up to the 2015 climate change conference.   

The document walked practitioners through the technical and process-related choices they faced during the INDCs design process, laid out in five general steps:  

1) Identifying the climate and sustainable development benefits of an INDC

2) Organizing the national, participatory process to prepare a contribution

3) Identifying data and analysis to inform the INDC

4) Choosing options for designing the INDC

5) Communicating the INDC. 

The wide range of INDC design options presented in the guidance document provided considerable flexibility for countries to build on past efforts and tailor contributions to their national circumstances and development priorities. 

A new guide on NDC Implementation Planning is in development.


  • SDGs
  • INDCs
  • Mitigation
  • Climate Change
  • Paris Agreement